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Start ABC Ogrodu Porady Redakcji Cięcie drzew owocowych w czasie zimy: Wiśnia
Cięcie drzew owocowych w czasie zimy: Wiśnia PDF Drukuj Email
Bartosz Palewski   
piątek, 25 stycznia 2013 14:45
Odsłon: 8433

Styczeń to miesiąc w którym rozpoczynamy cięcie drzew i roślin owocowych. W tej serii chciałbym przedstawić technikę i zasady, jakie należy stosować podczas wykonywania tej czynności w stosunku do wybranych gatunków. Pierwszą rośliną będzie wiśnia.



Wiśnia wyróżnia się na tle innych roślin tym, że posiada dwie grupy odmian, jeżeli chodzi o zabiegi ciecia. Pierwsza grupa owocuje na jednorocznych pędach, co skutkuje coraz bardziej zwisłym pokrojem i łatwym ogałacaniem. Druga natomiast owocuje na dwu lub trzyletnich pędach i posiada bardziej wzniesiony pokrój.

Do pierwszej grupy zaliczamy między innymi 'Łutówkę' i 'Gereme'. Najpopularniejszymi odmianami z drugiej ze wspomnianych grup jest 'Kerezer', 'Nefris', 'Favorit' oraz 'Morina'. Zazwyczaj uprawiamy formy niskopienne, u których wysokość pnia nie przekracza 70 cm. Korona może mieć postać piramidalną lub kotłową.



Aby uformować koronę piramidalną, należy wybrać od trzech do czterech konarów wyrastających pod niezbyt ostrym kątem. Ten zabieg ma na celu uniknięcie zbytniego zagęszczenia korony. Przewodnik drzewa należy przyciąć na taką długość, aby razem z konarami utworzył piramidę. Wybrane pędy należy skrócić o połowę, tnąc na jeden pąk zewnętrzny. Pozostałe rozgałęzienia należy wyciąć tuż u nasady. Zbyt gęsto rosnące pędy należy prześwietlać. Po pełnym uformowaniu korony (okres 5-6 lat), można się ograniczyć jedynie do cięcia odnawiającego.

Formowanie korony kotłowej, bez przewodnika odbywa się na innej zasadzie. Po skończonym kształtowanie korony, należy usunąć przewodnik. Zapewnia to większą ilość światła wnętrzu korony, co znacznie ułatwi późniejsze prace pielęgnacyjne i zbiór owoców. Zabieg ten jednak powoduje silny rozwój nowych pędów, co zmusza nas do częstszego cięcia i powoduje powstanie rozłożystej korony.


Fot. Drzewa i krzewy owocowe. Cięcie i pielęgnacja. Herbert Bischof.

Po zbiorze owoców niezbędne jest wykonanie cięcia prześwietlającego, polegające na usunięciu pędów wrastających do wnętrza korony. Cienkie pędy owoconośne należy szybko usuwać (najpóźniej po dwóch latach), gdyż może to prowadzić do ogałacanie i silnego zwieszania wiśni.

Jeżeli nasze drzewo jest już wiekowe, należy wykonać w okresie zimowym silne cięcie. Pomoże to pobudzić rozwój nowych pędów. Ogołocone konary skracamy do jednej trzeciej długości. Usuwamy silnie zwieszone pędy, pozostawiając rozgałęzienie lub wycinając je u nasady znajdującej się tuż przy pniu.



Źródło: Drzewa i krzewy owocowe. Cięcie i pielęgnacja. Herbert Bischof.



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